Improved Livelihoods for Biodiversity Conservation

The conservation agenda has existed for many years now, though approaches used to reach targets have varied over time. One such approach is linking biodiversity conservation to livelihoods. This approach is based on the premise that biodiversity conservation and sustainable natural resource use are directly linked to people’s rights to secure their livelihoods and live in dignity.

The existence of Dakatcha Woodland, one of Kenya’s Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs), has been under threat from unsustainable economic activities. These activities, such as charcoal burning, clearing of land for agriculture and extraction of wood products, have significantly contributed to the depletion of forest cover.

To reverse this worrying trend, Nature Kenya has been implementing a number of activities aimed at reducing the community’s over dependence on forest products for livelihood. In this respect two value chains: chicken rearing and farm forestry, are being promoted in Dakatcha Woodland as a way of integrating livelihoods into conservation.

Chicken farming was identified to facilitate gender mainstreaming into biodiversity conservation. Women’s participation in conservation activities is usually much lower compared to that of men and this was one of the considerations made in identifying an initiative that would also bring women onboard. In the Giriama community, chicken rearing is a preserve for women thus the initiative was warmly received by local women as it gave them an opportunity to actively engage in conservation efforts.

Four community groups are currently involved in chicken rearing in the area. The initiative has also improved the local chicken breed through inter-breeding with the improved “KARI Kienyeji” cockerels. Each of the four groups received three improved cockerels with members providing hens to be kept at a centralized site identified by the groups. The groups have also been linked

to the livestock production office where they get extension advice whenever necessary. So far 66 hens have cross bred with the improved “KARI Kienyeji” cockerels with the first generation of the improved chicks being hatched. Chicks fathered by the improved cockerels mature faster and are bigger in size as compared to the traditional local breed. A mature hen sells at between Kenya shillings 500 – 700 while a cockerel goes for between Kenya shillings 1,000 – 1,500.

In the long run this chicken rearing activity is expected to improve the chicken breeds and therefore allow the farmers to earn good income from sale of chicken for improved livelihoods in conservation.

The chicken rearing activity is being carried out under the “Integrating Livelihoods and Conservation – People Partner with Nature for Sustainable Living” program. The program aims at enhancing participatory forest management and contributing towards improving livelihoods of the community in order to reduce pressure on forested IBAs. The program is being undertaken by Nature Kenya in partnership with DOF – the BirdLife Partner in Denmark with funding from the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) through CISU (Civil Society in Development).

The program is also promoting farm forestry in Dakatcha, with a total of 53,070 seedlings being produced during the current long rains season. The tree seedlings are valued at Kenya shillings 1,061,400 at the current market price.

Mt. Kenya Forest Restoration

Mt. Kenya conservation groups and Kenya Breweries Limited Kijani team watch as Gloria Waswa (foreground)-Nature Kenya Membership and Marketing Manager and Maryann Nderu -Kenya Breweries Limited Sustainability Manager plant an Olea Africana tree seedling during the Mt.
Kenya restoration tree planting exercise that was held on 21st April 2017. PHOTO: N. KIBOI

DAKATCHA WOODLAND -IBA IN Focus

Dakatcha Woodland Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) covers nearly 2,000 square kilometres in the rolling hills of Magarini sub-county of Kilifi County. The beautiful spreading trees called Mrihi (Brachystegia spiciformis) are the main forest type. It is the most northern Brachystegia spiciformis forest in Africa. This forest gives Dakatcha Woodland its signature bird – the Clarke’s Weaver.
Rare Coastal Animals
Three bird species considered so rare that they are in danger of extinction are found in Dakatcha Woodland: Clarke’s Weaver, Sokoke Pipit and Sokoke Scops Owl. Clarke’s Weavers live only here
and in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest to the south. There’s also a mammal found only at the Coast and which is globally threatened: the Golden-rumped Sengi (Elephant-shrew). More than 220 kinds of
birds can be seen here, including the spectacular Fischer’s Turaco and international migratory birds such as Eurasian Rollers, Eurasian Golden Orioles, Nightingales and Spotted Flycatchers.
Threats
Dakatcha Woodland has no formal protection status. The economic and ecological services it provides and its remarkable biodiversity are threatened by over-exploitation of resources.
Uncontrolled logging of indigenous trees and illegal charcoal production have destroyed large tracts of forest vegetation and wildlife habitat. Agricultural expansion, especially pineapple production, has led to clearing of Cynometra forests and thickets, critically important as habitat for the endangered Sokoke Scops Owl. Unsustainable bush meat hunting poses a threat to the survival of rare mammals.
Conservation
The Dakatcha Woodland Conservation Group (DWCG) is a local environmental group working with Nature Kenya to conserve Dakatcha Woodland. The group was formed in 2008 with the main
objectives being to monitor birds and biodiversity, advocate for the conservation of Dakatcha Woodland IBA, create environmental awareness and support community livelihoods. DWCG comprises of four community groups and is affiliated to more than ten other groups, thus forming the largest community group in Marafa. Working together, DWCG, the Dakatcha Community Forest Association and the local community have set aside 26,000 hectares as Community Conserved Areas. These are nature reserves managed by local communities for preservation of animals, plants and ecosystem services, and for ecotourism and other cultural and non-consumptive uses.

Partnership for sustainable restoration of Mt. Kenya forest

Ongoing efforts to conserve Mt. Kenya ecosystem got a Ksh. 8 million boost from Kenya Breweries Limited (KBL) geared towards rehabilitating degraded forest areas. The funds, part of a public-private sector partnership to sustainably restore Mt. Kenya forest, will see KBL support the planting of 100,000 indigenous trees in the forest by the Mt. Kenya Biodiversity (Mt. Kebio) site support group. The public-private sector partnership for sustainable water flows from Mt. Kenya forest is a Nature Kenya initiative that seeks strategic commitment and support from the business sector to enhance the quantity and quality of water flowing from Mt. Kenya.

The initiative targets to raise Ksh. 140 million annually to plant 2 million trees to restore 2,000 Ha of Mt. Kenya and upper Tana catchment landscapes while keeping clean water flowing for access and use by downstream users and ecology.

Speaking when presenting the Ksh. 8 million cheque to Nature Kenya, KBL Finance Director, Ms. Kinya Kimotho said the company was committed to conserving the Mt. Kenya forest, terming it as a key pillars to Kenya’s economic development.

“Today’s partnership is in line with our sustainability agenda which calls us to reduce our environmental impact. So far, 133 staff from KBL have signed up to join the community in Mt. Kenya in planting 100,000 tree seedlings,” said Ms. Kimotho said.

The presentation of the cheque was made during a breakfast meeting convened by Nature Kenya to discuss Mt. Kenya restoration. Prof. Judi Wakhungu, Cabinet Secretary Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources was the chief guest at the meeting with participants drawn from the public and private sectors.

Acknowledging the initiative by Nature Kenya, Prof. Wakhungu urged the private sector to play a leading role in the restoration of Mt. Kenya forest by allocating more resources for conservation.

The Mt. Kenya and upper Tana ecosystem is the most productive basin for agriculture in Kenya. It provides water to key national parks, generates half of the country’s total hydropower, and supplies 95% of Nairobi’s water.

Mt. Kenya is also recognised as an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) and as such is part of the “Kenyan Mountains Endemic Bird Area (EBA)”.

Bird species found there include the Jackson’s Francolin, Sharpe’s Longclaw, Jackson’s Widowbird and Abbott’s Starling.

Avian flu reaches East Africa

At the start of 2017, hundreds of White-winged Black Terns were found dead on the shores of Lutembe Bay on Lake Victoria in Uganda. These birds nest in central Asia and southeastern Europe, and migrate to Africa to escape the northern winter. Tests on some of the terns were positive for avian influenza, also called bird flu or avian flu.

Five domestic ducks and a hen in Masaka district, west of Kampala, were also infected, according to Uganda’s Agriculture ministry. This is the first report of avian flu in East Africa. In response, Kenya and Rwanda have banned importation of poultry and eggs from Uganda.

Worldwide, about 40 countries have reported new outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry and wild birds since November 2016, according to WHO (the World Health Organization). In Europe and Asia, thousands of infected poultry are being culled. In China, some human infections have been reported.

Nature Kenya, the Kenyan Partner of BirdLife International, has this advice for birding enthusiasts and the general public:

1.    If you are out birding and you come across dead birds: record the location, bird species and the total number of dead birds seen. Take a photo if possible.

2.     Share this information with Nature Kenya (office@naturekenya.org) or National Museums of Kenya Ornithology Section (Dr Peter Njoroge Head of Ornithology Section pnjoroge@museums.or.ke) or Kenya Wildlife Service (gakuya@kws.go.ke ) or any local veterinary office nearby.

3.    Do not touch dead birds! Avian Flu can infect people, although this is rare so far

4.     Viewing birds and eating cooked chicken and eggs is safe. There were no cases of bird flu in Kenya as at 27 January 2017.

5.    For more information see http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/species/avian_flu/index

The sweet taste of conserving Arabuko –-Sokoke Forest

Beekeeping has traditionally been considered a preserve for men in Kenya. Culture dictated that the laborious and dangerous honey harvesting process was not fit for women, particularly in a rural setting. However, the advent of modern beekeeping techniques and tools has seen more women venturing into commercial beekeeping. For Alice Kasika Mwiu it is also a tale of passion and determination, a personal mission to conserve the largest single block of indigenous coastal forest remaining in East Africa: The Arabuko-Sokoke Forest.

Alice, a resident of Matano Mane in Kilifi County, is a champion for the conservation of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, for her livelihood depends on the forest’s existence. “This forest is a vital resource that provides livelihoods for people living adjacent to it. It provides us with bees for honey, wood for fuel, fresh air that we breathe and plants for medicine,” she says.

Without the forest, Alice adds, she wouldn’t be earning any living out of her hives, as it’s the forest that supplies flowers for the bees to feed on. In a good season her 200 hives are capable of producing more than two tonnes of honey, she says. Last year for instance, Alice harvested one hundred 20-litre containers of honey valued at more than two million shillings. In addition to honey, she also sold wax and other hive products. Out of proceeds from the sale of bee products, Alice has managed to build on her plot and also buy some cattle.

Alice’s beekeeping success story has seen her gain recognition as a model farmer and a source of inspiration to others. Hundreds of aspiring beekeepers flock to her farm to know more about bees and honey production. Alice has had visitors coming from as far as Nandi and other parts of the country to learn from her vast experience in beekeeping.

At Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, community-driven conservation projects such as beekeeping and butterfly farming were initiated to ensure that the people can draw a livelihood from this vital ecosystem without destroying it. One such initiative is “The People Partner with Nature Program” developed by BirdLife Denmark (DOF) together with three BirdLife partners: Nature Kenya, Nature Uganda and Bird Conservation Nepal. This program is supporting 50 beekeeping groups and 26 butterfly farming groups neighbouring Arabuko-Sokoke Forest.

The success of such initiatives is testimony to how improving livelihoods can go hand in hand with conservation. “People here now appreciate the value of preserving this important forest as there are direct benefits linked to its conservation. Arabuko–Sokoke is our forest and it is our duty to protect it,” says Alice who is also a member of the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Adjacent Dwellers Association (ASFADA), which is the forest’s Site Support Group (SSG).

“Getting people to embrace conservation has its own challenges, but with increased awareness communities can be mobilized to take action. Some years back people would walk into the forest, cut trees and get away with it. Nowadays community members are vigilant, any illegal activity spotted is immediately reported to the authorities,” concludes Alice.

ARABUKO–SOKOKE – the premier coastal forest

Arabuko-Sokoke Forest is the last large remnant of the East African coastal forest. The forest covers about 420 km2 and is an important conservation area due to its biodiversity richness. The forest is internationally renowned for its rare bird and mammal species and diversity of habitats.

The Globally Endangered birds Clarke’s Weaver, Sokoke Pipit, Amani Sunbird, Spotted Ground Thrush and Sokoke Scops Owl are found in the forest, which is home to twenty per cent of the bird species and thirty per cent of the butterfly species found in Kenya.

The Golden-rumped Sengi or Elephant-shrew is one of four globablly threatened mammals in the forest. Arabuko-Sokoke Forest is designated as an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA), and together with Mida Creek, forms part of a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. The forest is also renowned for its innovative Kipepeo Butterfly project.

A management team of important stakeholders manage the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Reserve. The Management Team is composed of Kenya Forest Service, Kenya Wildlife Service, National Museums of Kenya, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Nature Kenya and the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Adjacent Dwellers Association.

The Arabuko–Sokoke Forest Adjacent Dwellers Association (ASFADA) is the forest’s Site Support Group (SSG). The group has 3,563 members and is involved in activities such as butterfly farming, beekeeping, tree planting and ecotourism. With help from Nature Kenya and the Community Development Trust Fund,

ASFADA built and manages the Jamii Villas, where visitors can stay or have a meal.

The Friends of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, a working group of Nature Kenya, also carries out conservation activities in the forest. The group monitors, documents and reports illegal tree felling and poaching of animals, creates awareness about the value of the forest amongst local and international communities, and supports local farming communities and the conservation work of the Kenya Forest Service and Kenya Wildlife Service.

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